The first design of a recoil-operated semi-automatic rifle is attributed to Ferdinand Mannlicher, who unveiled the design in 1885 based on work begun in 1883. Other non-gas operated semi-automatic models were the Model 85 and Mannlicher Models 91, 93 and 95 rifles. The designs were deeply flawed and never made past the conceptual/prototype stage due to issues inherent to the black powder used in their cartridges (based around the Austrian 11×58mmR M/77), such as insufficient velocity and excessive fouling; automatic firearms would only become feasible after smokeless powder became widespread. Mannlicher’s designs were, nonetheless, the forerunner of automatic rifles and served as a base for a number of future weapons, such as Browning machine guns (M1917, M1919 and M2) and the Lewis gun. Furthermore, from the early 1890s up until his death in 1904, Mannlicher produced smokeless powder versions of his guns.